Availability bias is present in Medicine when we select and option as the more likely just because comes faster to our mind, related to previous experiencies.
TRALI : Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a clinical syndrome with a low prevalence, that presents as acute hypoxemia and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema during or after blood transfusion. The clinical picture and X-ray findings are similar to other diseases with specific treatment.
How these two concepts are related?
A 52-year-old man had a diagnosis of neoplasia and he received chemotherapy. Two weeks later neutropenia and anemia was present and a blood transfusion was started, but it has to be stopped due to the presence of fever and chills. One day later a second transfusion was administered with premedication, but the patient started again with fever and dyspnea. An x-ray showed a bilateral alveolar and interstitial infiltrate.
A young doctor with a previous experience of a similar situation , makes a diagnosis of TRAIL syndrome initially,but a positive sputum culture changed the diagnostic orientation.
Availability bias focus the mind over a narrow field and other pathological entities could be missed. Also specific treatment can be delayed. In this case a vivid and close experience changed the real prevalence of an uncommon situation like the TRALI syndrome.
IMPROVING MEASURES: Make a complete list of possibilities. Give importance to prevalence. Remember that different entities can have the same radiological images.